Southern African Development
HISTORY AND PRESENT STATUS
known as the Southern African Development Co-ordination
Conference (SADCC), the organisation was formed
in Lusaka, Zambia on 1 April 1980, following the
adoption of the Lusaka Declaration. The Declaration
and Treaty establishing the Southern African Development
Community (SADC) which has replaced the Co-ordination
Conference was signed at the Summit of Heads of
State or Government on 17 August 1992, in Windhoek,
of SADC are Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic
of the Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique,
Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania,
Zambia and Zimbabwe.
to address national priorities through regional
action most member states had been allocated the
responsibility of coordinating one or more sectors.
This involved proposing sector policies, strategies
and priorities, and processing projects for inclusion
in the sectoral programme, monitoring progress and
reporting to the Council of Ministers.
the sector responsibilities within SADC have been
Agricultural Research, Livestock Production
and Animal Disease Control
Environment, Land Management and Water
Fisheries, Forestry and Wildlife
Information, Sport, and the Transport and
Communications Commission (SATTCC)
Fisheries and Resources Legal Affairs
Investment and Health
Employment, Labour and Mining
Production, Food, Agriculture and Natural
The DRC and
Seychelles had no sector responsibility.
of the SADC Summit held in Maputo, Mozambique, in
August 1999 instructed that a review be conducted
of the Institutions of SADC as well as its Operations.
This directive was based on the fact that under
the sectoral based approach which was inherited
from the SADCC, the organisation was being hamstrung
in its endeavours to achieve regional integration
by devising and implementing regional policies and
strategies in a co-ordinated and harmonised manner.
exercise was duly completed in December 2000 and
having been approved and recommended by the Council,
was presented to the Extra-ordinary Summit of SADC
in March 2001 in Windhoek, Namibia. Summit endorsed
the recommendations contained in the Review Report
and called for the restructuring to be implemented
with immediate effect and to be completed within
a two-year transitional period.
decentralised approach is to be discontinued in
favour of a centralised one at the SADC Secretariat
Headquarters in Gaborone, Botswana. An Integrated
Ministerial Committee has been constituted to devise
a five-year Regional Indicative Strategic Development
Plan for the region together with the newly created
Department of Strategic Planning, Gender and Development
and Policy Harmonisation. All SADC member states
will be participating in this process through their
national committees. The Integrated Ministerial
Committee will oversee the implementation of the
Strategic Plan and report to Council on progress.
Department of Strategic Planning, Gender and Development
and Policy Harmonisation will be four Directorates
which cluster those activities and programmes of
SADC which are cross-cutting and inter-related.
The four Directorates are: Trade and Industry and
Finance and Investment; Infrastructure and Services;
Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources; and, Human
and Social Development.
of the restructuring exercise is currently underway
and is expected to be completed by December 2002.
a formalised structure, which includes the Summit
of Heads of State; the Council of Ministers; the
Standing Committee of Senior Officials.
Secretariat which will continue to operate from
its Headquarters in Gaborone, Botswana is headed
by an Executive-Secretary. The Secretariat has a
small component and is tasked with administrative
issues relating to the organisation as well as implementing
decisions made by the Council and Summit.
The aim of
SADC is to create a Community providing for regional
peace and security, and an integrated regional economy.
As a regional institution it has laid the basis
on which regional planning and development in southern
Africa could be pursued. It also provides the desired
instrument by means of which member states should
move along the path towards eventual economic integration.
Furthermore, SADC forms one of the building blocks
of the African
Economic Community (AEC).
acceded to the SADC Treaty on 29 August 1994 at
the Heads of State Summit in Gaborone, Botswana.
This accession was approved by the Senate and National
Assembly on 13 and 14 September 1994 respectively.
As a member
of SADC, South Africa's focus is on regional co-operation
for the socioeconomic development of the Southern
African region. South Africa's membership of SADC
provides an opportunity to tackle, in a coordinated
fashion together with other member states issues
such as sustainable regional economic growth, HIV/AIDS,
the problem of illegal immigration and refugees
as well as narcotics and arms smuggling into the
OTHER DEPARTMENTS AND COOPERATING ORGANISATIONS
of monitoring and managing South Africa's role in
the process of regional integration lies with the
Directorate: SADC National Contact Point in the
Department of Foreign Affairs. Regarding the programmes
and activities of SADC, these are pursued by the
relevant line function Departments.
is responsible for interacting with the relevant
South African stakeholders in their respective areas
RELEVANT TREATIES/PROTOCOLS ETC
- Protocol on Immunities
- Protocol on Shared Watercourse
Systems in the Southern African Region
- Revised Protocol on
- Protocol on Combating
Illicit Drug Trafficking in the Southern African
- Protocol on Energy
- Protocol on Mining
- Protocol on Trade
- Protocol on Transport,
Communications and Meteorology
- Protocol on Education
- Protocol on Tourism
- Protocol on Wildlife
Conservation and Law Enforcement
- Protocol on Health
- Protocol on Legal Affairs
- Protocol on the Tribunal
and the Rules of Procedure Thereof
- Amendment Protocol on
- Protocol on Fisheries
- Protocol on the Control
of Firearms, Ammunition and other Related Materials
- Protocol Against Corruption
- Protocol on Politics,
Defence and Security Co-operation
- Protocol on Culture,
Information and Sport
- Agreement Amending the
Treaty of SADC
has signed 21 of the Protocols and is in the process
of acceding to the Protocol on Immunities and Privileges.
South Africa has also ratified the Protocols on
Shared Watercourse Systems, Combating Illicit Drug
Trafficking, Energy, Mining, Transport, Communications
and Meteorology, Health and Education and Training.
The Revised Protocol on Shared Watercourse Systems
has also been ratified.
Of the 22
Protocols signed, the Protocols on Immunities and
Privileges, Shared Watercourse Systems, Combating
Illicit Drug Trafficking, Energy, Mining, Trade,
Education and Training, Transport, Communications
and Meteorology have received the required number
of ratifications and have entered into force.
- Declaration Towards
a Southern Africa free of Anti- personnel landmines
- Declaration on Gender
- Declaration on Productivity
- Declaration Concerning
Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials
is a signatory to these Declarations.
include the MOU on the Southern African Power Pool
and the Charter of the Regional Tourism Organisation
of Southern Africa (RETOSA) to which South Africa
is a party (the Charter has also entered into force),
as well as the MOU with the Southern African Chambers
of Commerce and Industry (SACCI).
the South African government has regarded the Southern
African region as the most important priority of
its foreign relations. To illustrate the importance
attached to this region, the first foreign policy
document adopted by this government was in fact
a "Framework for Co-operation in Southern Africa"
approved by Cabinet in August 1996.
of this "Framework", our vision for the Southern
African region is one of the highest possible degree
of economic cooperation, mutual assistance where
necessary and joint planning of regional development
initiatives, leading to integration consistent with
socio-economic, environmental and political realities.
to carry out South Africa's foreign policy objectives
in Southern Africa, South Africa joined the Southern
African Development Community (SADC) in August 1994.
has taken a leading role in the region to address
such issues as closer collaboration and economic
integration. These include the establishment of
a free trade area in the region, the development
of basic infrastructure, the development of human
resources and the creation of the necessary capacity
to drive this complicated process forward, as well
as the urgent need for peace, democracy and good
governance to be established throughout the region.
SADC, South Africa has become very involved in the
activities of the community. Until the present South
Africa has been co-ordinating the Finance and Investment
and Health sectors.
the many activities of SADC, such as Transportation
and Communications, Agriculture, Trade, Energy and
Mining, etc., these are actively pursued by the
relevant South African line function departments.
of the SADC Protocol on Trade in August 1996 confirmed
the commitment of Southern Africa to establish a
Free Trade Area in the region. Negotiations to determine
Member States tariff structure are at an advanced
stage. The Trade Protocol was ratified by more than
two thirds SADC Member States and it was implemented
on the 1st of September 2000. Presently,
more than half of the SADC Member States has already
deposited their Instruments of Implementation of
the SADC Protocol on Trade.
has also played a leading role in the development
of the Berlin Initiative, which strives to foster
closer co-operation between the European Union and
SADC. Priority issues that are included under this
Initiative are the consolidation of democracy in
the Southern African region, combatting illicit
drug trafficking, clearance of landmines, regional
integration, promotion of Trade and Investment and
combatting HIV/AIDS. South Africa together with
the other member states of SADC is also co-operating
with the USA under SADC/US Forum Initiative.
played an important role in having Gender issues
placed on the SADC Agenda and is a signatory to
the Declaration on Gender and Development and the
Addendum on the Prevention and Eradication of Violence
against Women and Children. As a follow-up to the
Declaration on Gender and Development South Africa
hosted a SADC Conference on Violence Against Women
and Children in March 1998 in Durban.
In 1999 the
SADC Council focused on Special Programmes. This
entailed setting up working groups to deal with
the issues of Mine Action, Combating the Proliferation
of Small Arms and Disaster management in the region.
At the SADC Council Meeting in Windhoek during August
2000 a Secretariat Officer was appointed to monitor
progress with the Working Groups dealing with these
issues. Both the small arms and landmine issues
are also discussed with the European Union under
the Berlin Initiative. South Africa continues to
play a significant part in these deliberations and
together with the other member states ensures that
the interests of the region are communicated to
the wider international arena.
together with the other member states of SADC established
the Organ on Politics, Defence and Security in June
1996 as a forum in which political issues in the
region could be discussed and resolved. Due to differences
in interpretation of the functions and structures
of the Organ it did not become an operational and
functional instrument of SADC. At the extraordinary
SADC Summit held in Windhoek, Namibia on 9-10 March
2001, Heads of State and Government finally reached
agreement on the role, functions and structure of
the Organ. A Draft Protocol was drawn up and adopted
at the SADC Summit in Blantyre, Malawi on 14 August
The broad intent of the
Organ Protocol is to achieve solidarity, peace and
security within the SADC region through close co-operation
on matters of politics, defence and security. The
emphasis is on the peaceful settlement of disputes
by negotiation, conciliation, mediation and arbitration.
In this context the Organ Protocol addresses both
intra- and inter-state conflict and stipulates principles
for collective action in managing such conflict.
to operationalise the Organ the Protocol establishes
the Organ on Politics, Defence and Security. This
structure includes the: the Chairperson of the Organ,
the Plenary Ministerial Committee and the Inter-State
Politics and Diplomacy Committee (ISPDC) and Inter-State
Defence and Security Committee (ISDSC). Currently
a Strategic Indicative Plan for the Organ (SIPO)
is in the process of being developed. The SIPO will
set the framework, work programme and operational
parameters for the functioning of the Organ.
to the management of the Organ is the Organ Troika.
The Troika is made up of three member states that
are not members of the SADC Troika. The Chairperson
of the Organ reports directly to the SADC Summit.
As at 25 September 2002 the Chair of the Organ is
Mozambique, the in coming Chair is Tanzania and
Zimbabwe is the outgoing Chair.
to SADC meetings and conferences, South Africa is
an active participant and has hosted many Ministerial
and Official meetings. South Africa became the first
member state of SADC to host both the Summit in
1995 and the following Annual Consultative Conference
in one financial year. We have also hosted special
Summits on the situation in Nigeria in 1996 and
the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo
in August 1998. Furthermore, South Africa hosted
the OAU Conference on Landmines which served as
a precursor to the Ottawa Convention.
At the 1996 SADC Heads
of State Summit in Maseru, South Africa was elected
as Chair of SADC for a period of 3 years. During
its chairmanship five SADC protocols reached the
implementation stage and the organisation adopted
some recommendations regarding the rationalisation
of its structures and programme of action.